Lung cancer is a widespread disease in the modern era. Worldwide there are about 1.8 million people with lung cancers and an estimated 1.6 billion deaths. Eighty-five percent is a non-small-cell and its associated with cigarettes, making approximately ninety percent of all. Lung cancers are associated with a cigarette smoking history.
Symptoms of Lung Cancer, Types, and treatment
There is twenty-time more risk of developing lung cancers than non-smokers so this is the guess the most important thing to stop patients from smoking. Other causes of radiation therapy and pulmonary fibrosis and genetic factors.
Types of lung cancer:
There might be Different symptoms of lung cancer for different types of lung cancer. Adenocarcinoma is the most commonly squamous cell. Carcinoma is also quite common. We now have personalized genotype-directed therapy, so we stained a tumor with EGFR, ALK and ROS 1 and with these, if they’re positive staining for these receptors then we can give them a tyrosine kinase inhibitor which improves their outcome and improves their response to chemotherapy.
It’s quite essential for us to do that for all the lung cancers that we get and at this stage. Well, only since the beginning of you it’s now automatic that we do these stains and we can improve their outcomes. We need to focus on the symptoms of the lung cancer when deciding which kind of lung cancer is this.
Symptoms of lung cancer:
Clinical presentation, cough hemoptysis, chest pain and as most of you would know seventy-five percent of patients who present with lung cancer have one or more symptoms and a majority present with advanced disease.
Other symptoms of lung cancer or you can say presentations are hoarseness, fusions, and superior vena cava syndrome. The important things are to establish diagnosis accurately, stage them and give them appropriate therapy. Unfortunately, there’s no complete algorithm for all patients that present with lung cancer and the most concerning thing is that seventy-five percent of the patient has advanced disease that is incurable.
The patient tissue diagnosis most commonly used is a bus which is using endoscopic overthrew the bronchus or through the esophagus ultrasound. The ultrasound can localize where a tumor is, check the symptoms of lung cancer and a fine needle biopsy can be performed. Other uses a CT guided FNA surgical biopsy in sputum cytology.
Lung Cancer’s treatment:
When you are sure which type of lung cancer you are dealing with after checking all symptoms of lung cancer you can go for the right treatment. For most patients’ treatment after initial valuation those in clinical stage 1, 2. Whether they are a surgical candidate and if they are then they go through rejection if they’re not usually due to reduced lung function or other comorbidities they either have the saber, which is kind of directed radiotherapy or definitive radiotherapy and then surveillance and those with either.
Clinical stage 3 go to a multidisciplinary approach, and the other has a type of modal try therapy where they get radiotherapy. Chemotherapy gets restage, and if they come down to stage 2, then they can come down this pathway.
The most important thing at the moment is screening and using a low dose CT scan. This isn’t recommended in Australia but there’s a group in Western Australia who is trying to discern whether this is a good thing or not.
The problem is that the low-dose CT scan although the radiation from it isn’t very high, it picks up a lot of things and so even for the high-risk group. 55 to 80-year-old make history who occurrence makers of quite recently, have high risk but they also have a high false-positive rate, and it’s not the actual low-dose CT scan that’s the problem. That is when knowing the symptoms of lung cancer can come handy.
The problem is the information you get from this investigation. What do you do with it? A lot of people will get some positive CT scan with a lesion and then do they go down the pathway of having fine needle biopsy or surgical resection. If you are not sure with the symptoms of lung cancer don’t do it.
It’s complicated to know. It’s something we need to do because as I said before 75% of patients who of all comers of lung cancers have an advanced stage.
Despite the advances in both surgery and chemotherapy the survive five-year survival is only 16% for all comers, and the low-dose CT scan has shown in the USA, that there’s a 20% percent reduction in lung cancer mortality. It can increase or decrease on the basis of the knowledge of the symptoms of lung cancer.
In the future probably two or three years that we will be doing a lot of lower-dose CT scans, but it’s the algorithm after that once you’ve found a positive finding in it that’s what needs to be worked on. To try and discern which will give us the highest yield because if we can get these patients early on getting them in stage 1 and 2, then we can make an impact on that sixteen percent five-year survival.